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Demosthenes, the ancient orator, came to Poseidon's Temple demanding his right of sanctuary when he was chased by Philip the King of Macedonia. He killed himself by drinking the poison hemlock. The statue of Poseidon inside the temple was estimated at 5 meters in height. All that now remains of it is the foot: a 70-centimeter long piece, which is housed at the Poros Museum.

Source: www.greeka.com

Archaeological research on the site began in 1894 by the Swedish Archaeological Institute under the direction of archaeologists Samuel Wide and Lennart Kjellberg. In 1997 the Institute resumed a new phase of archaeological fieldwork in the area, the Kalaureia Research Program continues to date. Excavated roof tiles from c. 650 BC. sug­gest the ex­is­tence of a pre­cur­sor to the Late Ar­chaic tem­ple of Po­sei­don, as well as the pres­ence of a build­ing in the area of the later Propy­lon. There are also re­mains of ter­race walls which date from the 7th cen­tury BC.

The Doric column shown here is a reconstruction of one from a stoa located wtihing the site compound.

The stylobate measurements for this temple are given as 14.4m by 27.4m. There is a problem with those dimensions since they do not actually correlate to a type 6 12 structure. The column interaxial measuremnts for the front parastyle, assuming the width of the stylobate is correct, is 2.68m with a contraction at the corners to 2.56m. That would translate to a length equal to 29.24m. Subsequently, if the width is correct, then the 27.4m length is in error.

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The Kalaureia Research Program, www.kalaureia.org/ancient_kalaureia
Wide, S. & L. Kjell­berg 1895. ‘Aus­grabun­gen auf Kalau­reia’, AM 20, 267–326.
Simpson [1981]:  Simpson, Richard Hope. Mycenaean Greece. Park Ridge, New Jersey: Noyes Press, 1981., ‘A 38 Poros: The Temple of Poseidon at Kalaureia’, pg. 30.Wal­len­sten, J. & J. Pakka­nen 2009. ‘A new in­scribed base from the Sanc­tu­ary of Po­sei­don at Kalau­reia’, Opus­cula 2, 155–165.

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The Doric temple of Poseidon was located at the north end of an enclosed sanctuary within a grove of trees with only a portion of the surrounding wall surviving.  It was built from poros limestone brought from the island of Aegina. The ancient sanctuary of Poseidon was destroyed in 395 AD. as a result of an earthquake. Over time, much of the temple, as well as the associated structures around it, were plundered, the stone use elsewhere, most for the construction of a monastery on Hydra.  

There is another problem that crops up in the published information. The temple of Poseidon at Kalaureia is, I believe, often mistaken for the Poros temple and the data frequently interchanged.