Mertens, D.  1984

Marconi, P. (1931). Himera: Lo Scavo del Tempio della Vittoria e del Temenos. Rome: Società Magna Grecia.

Sacks, K. (1976). Herodotus and the dating of the battle of Thermopylae. Classical Quarterly , 26 (2), 232-248.

Salt, Alun, "An analysis of astronomical alignments of Greek Sicilian Temples" https://www.researchgate.net/publication/45896625

Himera  Athena Nike  480  BC

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Himera was settled in 648 BC and was the first Greek settlement on this part of Sicily and was a strategic outpost just outside the eastern boundary of the Carthaginian-controlled west and was one of the most important of the Greek cities in Sicily. The city saw two major battles, one in 480 BC against the Carthaginians. The Battle was supposedly fought on the same day as the more famous Battle of Salamis (Herod. 7.166), and saw the Greek forces of Syracuse, and Akragas, defeat the Carthaginian force, ending a Carthaginian bid for control of Himera, at least for the time. The temple of Athena Nike was built at that time and dedicated to the victory over the Carthaginians. The construction of the temple began atsunrise around the 29th of August, 480 BC, the day of a New Moon. Then, in 480 BC, the Cathagineans again attaced the city, and this time the city was destroyed along with the temple. 


The only recognizable ruin in this city is the Tempio della Vittoria (Temple of Victory), a Doric structure to commemorate the defeat of the Carthaginians. Much of the temple foundation survives along with the lion gutters now displayed in the the Museo Archeologico Regionale in Palermo, Italy. To the south of the temple was the town's necropolis.